Wednesday, 25 April 2018

Suppression of the Test for Abnormal Toxicity from the European Pharmacopoeia



During its 159th plenary session, the European Pharmacopoeia Commission endorsed the complete suppression of the test for abnormal toxicity from the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.).

As part of this exercise, 49 monographs revised to remove the test for abnormal toxicity were adopted by the Commission; notably, these included 36 monographs on vaccines for human use. In addition, as the general chapter Abnormal Toxicity (2.6.9) will no longer be referenced in any monograph, it will subsequently be rendered obsolete and will also be deleted from the Ph. Eur.

The Ph. Eur. Commission remains fully committed to the reduction of animal use wherever possible in pharmacopoeial testing, in accordance with the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes. The decision to suppress the test for abnormal toxicity at the 159th session of the Ph. Eur. Commission is a strong illustration of this commitment.

See: abnormal toxicity

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Tuesday, 24 April 2018

World Immunization Week 2018: more work must be done to close vaccine coverage gaps


Each year, the World Health Organization (WHO) uses World Immunization Week, celebrated during the last week of April, to promote awareness of the countless benefits of vaccines, which are undeniably the world’s most effective and economically sound medical intervention, says GlobalData, a leading data and analytics company.

The theme of World Immunization Week 2018—'Protected Together, #VaccinesWork'—highlights the need to improve pediatric vaccination rates globally, as the WHO estimates they have been stuck at 86% (116.5 million infants) over the past year.

Despite a coordinated effort to boost coverage rates over the past decade, the WHO states that 19.5 million infants still do not have access to vaccines that protect against life-threatening yet easily preventable diseases such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and rotavirus. Approximately 60% of these undervaccinated children reside in only 10 countries, namely: Angola, Brazil, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, and South Africa.

Christopher J. Pace, GlobalData Director of Infectious Diseases, commented, ‘‘Overall, we believe that a strong patient-provider relationship, coupled with public awareness campaigns that tout the benefits of vaccination while simultaneously debunking anti-vaccine beliefs, is essential to bridging these diverse coverage gaps across the developing and developed world.’’

The WHO and its partners hope to improve vaccination rates in the developing world through targets set by the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). However, a 2017 status report revealed that progress toward achieving these goals by 2020 is behind schedule.

Pace added, ‘‘In contrast to the developing world, remaining immunization coverage gaps in developed countries such as the US are largely centered on adolescents and adults, who often receive the first dose of a recommended vaccine but then fail to follow up with their healthcare providers.’’

For example, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that while over 60% of eligible teens received ≥1 dose of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, only 49% and 37% received ≥2 and ≥3 doses, respectively, in 2016. A similar trend was observed with the adolescent meningitis (MenACWY) vaccine, as only 39% of eligible US teens received the complete two-dose series despite over 80% receiving the first dose.

See: GlobalData

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Decoy molecules target E. coli to treat UTI in mice



Researchers have designed sugar molecules that block E. coli bacteria from binding to urinary tissues, allowing the bacteria to be washed out of the urinary tract. The compounds represent a step toward treating UTIs without antibiotics.

The bacteria E. coli cause 80 percent of UTIs, leading to painful, burning urination. The bacteria then sometimes travel to the kidneys, causing back pain and fever. In rare cases, they spread to the blood, a potentially lethal complication.

Often, UTIs can be cleared up with antibiotics, but 10 to 20 percent of cases do not respond to current first-line drugs. Hultgren and his colleagues are working on an alternative that would prevent bacteria from causing disease, which may help reduce dependency on antibiotics.

E. coli's first step in causing UTIs is to latch onto sugars on the surface of the bladder with long, hairlike structures called pili. Hultgren and co-senior author James W. Janetka, PhD, an associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biophysics, previously created mannosides, modified forms of a sugar called mannose, that the bacteria favor over typical sugars on the bladder wall. When mice with UTIs were given the mannosides, the E. coli in their bladders grabbed hold of those molecules and were swept away.

Researchers have shown that E. coli also can latch onto galactose, another sugar molecule found on urinary tissues. A drug that undermines the bacteria's ability to stay in the body is less likely to drive resistance because, unlike antibiotics, it would not force bacteria to die or evolve resistance in order to survive, the researchers said.

The researchers also demonstrated that the galactoside prevented the bacteria's adhesive protein from sticking to human kidney tissue.

See:

Vasilios Kalas, Michael E. Hibbing, Amarendar Reddy Maddirala, Ryan Chugani, Jerome S. Pinkner, Laurel K. Mydock-McGrane, Matt S. Conover, James W. Janetka, Scott J. Hultgren. Structure-based discovery of glycomimetic FmlH ligands as inhibitors of bacterial adhesion during urinary tract infection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2018; 201720140 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720140115



Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Monday, 23 April 2018

Testing water for coliforms using a rapid method


Microbial control of pharmaceutical water systems is not only about numbers of microorganisms estimated to be present, as recovered through bioburden testing of a given volume of sampled water; microbiologists additionally need to know the types of organisms present within water.

With this a new article of interest has been published:

Marflitt, A. and Sandle, T. (2018): Evaluation of Readycult® Coliforms 100 Presence/Absence Test for the screening of coliforms and Escherichia coli in pharmaceutical water samples, European Journal of Parenteral and Pharmaceutical Science, 22 (4): 118-125

The abstract is:

The microbiological monitoring of water systems in pharmaceutical facilities requires an assessment of total microbial count, with an action level applicable to the water grade. It is also considered good practice in many facilities to assess water for the presence/absence of identified objectionable microorganisms. Included among these ‘objectionables’ are coliforms, as indicators of substandard water. The traditional approach for assessing for coliforms in water is using a specialised agar. This approach requires an incubation time within the region of 3 to 5 days. This paper assesses an alternative method, which provides a result within 18 to 24 hours. The method evaluated was the Readycult® Coliforms 100, which contains both a chromogenic substrate (to show the presence of coliforms) and a fluorogenic substrate (to show the presence of Escherichia coli). Through a series of experimental tests involving different grades of pharmaceutical water and different microorganisms, the Readycult® Coliforms 100 was shown to be suitable as a rapid microbiological method for screening water, with reactions produced comparable to conventional methods.

For further details, contact Tim Sandle

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Sunday, 22 April 2018

Gut bacteria drive autoimmune disease


Bacteria found in the small intestines of mice and humans can travel to other organs and trigger an autoimmune response, according to a new study.

The findings suggest promising new approaches for treating chronic autoimmune conditions, including systemic lupus and autoimmune liver disease, the researchers said.

Gut bacteria have been linked to a range of diseases, including autoimmune conditions characterized by immune system attack of healthy tissue. To shed light on this link, a Yale research team focused on Enterococcus gallinarum, a bacterium they discovered is able to spontaneously "translocate" outside of the gut to lymph nodes, the liver, and spleen.

In models of genetically susceptible mice, the researchers observed that in tissues outside the gut, E. gallinarum initiated the production of auto-antibodies and inflammation -- hallmarks of the autoimmune response. They confirmed the same mechanism of inflammation in cultured liver cells of healthy people, and the presence of this bacterium in livers of patients with autoimmune disease.

Through further experiments, the research team found that they could suppress autoimmunity in mice with an antibiotic or a vaccine aimed at E. gallinarum. With either approach, the researchers were able to suppress growth of the bacterium in the tissues and blunt its effects on the immune system.

See:

S. Manfredo Vieira, M. Hiltensperger, V. Kumar, D. Zegarra-Ruiz, C. Dehner, N. Khan, F. R. C. Costa, E. Tiniakou, T. Greiling, W. Ruff, A. Barbieri, C. Kriegel, S. S. Mehta, J. R. Knight, D. Jain, A. L. Goodman, M. A. Kriegel. Translocation of a gut pathobiont drives autoimmunity in mice and humans. Science, 2018; 359 (6380): 1156 DOI: 10.1126/science.aar7201



Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Saturday, 21 April 2018

New Code of Practice on Product Recalls


The U.K. Government’s new Office for Product Safety and Standards has teamed up with BSI to launch the first Government-backed Code of Practice (PAS 7100) for product safety related recall and other corrective action in the UK. This new guidance will help businesses understand what they need to do if something goes wrong with their product. The Code of Practice includes details on how a business can monitor the safety of products and plan for a recall, and how Market Surveillance Authorities such as local authority Trading Standards can support businesses in their monitoring of incidents and their implementation of corrective action.

The Code of Practice, developed by BSI, is the first major initiative for the new Office which was launched by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy in January. It follows a recommendation by the Working Group on Products Recalls and Safety to introduce such a Code to further strengthen the UK’s already tough product safety regime.

The Code of Practice comes in two parts. The first part is focused on non-food consumer products and is intended for use by manufacturers, importers and distributors. The second part is aimed at regulators, specifically Market Surveillance Authorities including local authority Trading Standards. It details how they can carry out their role in ensuring businesses meet their responsibilities in respect of consumer product safety issues.

Consumer Minister Andrew Griffiths said:

“This new Code of Practice will support businesses in dealing with product safety issues swiftly and effectively, ensuring people can continue to buy secure in the knowledge there is an effective system in place if products need to be repaired or replaced.

“Effective regulation is a key element of our Industrial Strategy, which is creating the conditions for businesses to succeed in the UK and to compete in the global economy.”

Use the link to learn more about the Code of Practice.

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Friday, 20 April 2018

Taking aim at cholera


In 1854, John Snow's work on cholera in London immortalised the power of mapping as a tool for disease prevention and control. Over 160 years later, a more ambitious effort to map cholera has been reported in The Lancet. Forgoing so-called shoe leather epidemiology in favour of big data, Justin Lessler and colleagues2 used 279 cholera datasets covering 2283 locations in 37 countries, and cluster-level maps of access to improved water and sanitation in 41 countries, to map cholera incidence across sub-Saharan Africa at a 20 km × 20 km grid scale.

An interesting article from The Lancet by Eric Mintz.

"Sustainable water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) infrastructure is crucial for ending transmission of cholera and other diseases transmitted by the faecal–oral route, and is a Sustainable Development Goal 2030 target in its own right, but its construction is costly and time consuming. Oral cholera vaccines, which are effective at reducing cholera transmission in the short term (3–5 years), remain in short supply relative to global demand despite substantial success in increasing their production and accessibility."

See: The Lancet



Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Thursday, 19 April 2018

BSI Brexit Position Paper




British Standards Instiutte (BSI) has consulted its members and stakeholders about the possible implications of Brexit for standards. The BSI Brexit Position Statement sets out the eight key principles on which BSI’s post-Brexit position is based.

Since the UK voted to leave the EU in June 2016, BSI, in its capacity as the UK’s National Standards Body, has consulted its members and stakeholders about the possible implications of Brexit for standards.

As a result, BSI’s post-Brexit position is to continue to provide UK experts with the standards development framework to support trade in the UK, across Europe and globally. To enable this, our stakeholders are clear that BSI should remain a full member of the European Standards Organizations.

The Brexit Position Paper sets out the eight key principles on which our position is based. These principles are supported by statements from a range of BSI’s stakeholders, including industry associations and individual companies, consumer groups, users of standards and professional institutions.

Use this link to download aPDF of the paper now.

Webinar: Fungal Contamination and Pharmaceutical Products Recall


Over the past decade, the number of pharmaceutical product recalls due to fungi has increased significantly, with many different product groups affected. Data suggests a link between product contamination and the process environment. A key concern is a lack of knowledge, even among microbiologists, about identifying fungi and understanding their origins. This webinar will explain different types of fungi, risks to products, guidance on identification, and a focus on remediation measures to remove, eliminate and to prevent fungi.

In this webinar Tim Sandle will examine the risks posed by fungi to pharmaceutical products and has emphasized how this is an issue of growing importance (as seen by the extent of product recalls relating to fungal contamination). The webinar has further considered where fungi pose a risk within the manufacturing process and also to argue that recalls relating to fungal contamination can be reduced through improved cleanroom design; risk assessment; and developing greater specialism’s within quality control departments in order to be able to characterize, identify and to trace fungi. This way, the risks posed by fungi to pharmaceutical processes should receive the level of attention necessary, especially in light of the potential for certain products to become contaminated.

Also:
  • Learn about fugal risks
  • Appreciate the extent of pharmaceutical product recalls relating to fungi
  • Understand which types of medicinal products are most at risk
  • Learn about the common types of fungi associated with cleanrooms
  • Understand the main points of contamination
  • Learn about monitoring techniques
  • Learn about good disinfection practices
  • Understand other remediation activities
For details, see Online Compliance Webinar.

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Wednesday, 18 April 2018

Formation of bacterial spores


Bacterial spores store information about the individual growth history of their progenitor cells, thus retaining a "memory" that links the different stages of the bacterial life cycle. This phenomenon was demonstrated in a recent study.

The researchers studied the adaptive bacterial life cycle using Bacillus subtilis as a model organism. Through the use of time-lapse microscopy, they were able for the first time in this context to observe and to study sporulation and spore revival at the single-cell level -- and how they correlate. They discovered that the spores responded very differently to the influx of new nutrients: The spores that formed earlier during a nutrient down-shift revived more quickly.

The metabolic enzyme alanine dehydrogenase contributes to this effect, according to the researchers. Bacteria produce the enzyme when the amino acid L-alanine is available and stop synthesis once it runs out. Dr Bischofs explains that the enzyme is passed down from one generation of bacteria to the next by carry-over until spores are formed. The enzyme is then stored in the new spores, where it remains inactive until new nutrients arrive that facilitate spore revival and re-growth.

See:

Alper Mutlu, Stephanie Trauth, Marika Ziesack, Katja Nagler, Jan-Philip Bergeest, Karl Rohr, Nils Becker, Thomas Höfer, Ilka B. Bischofs. Phenotypic memory in Bacillus subtilis links dormancy entry and exit by a spore quantity-quality tradeoff. Nature Communications, 2018; 9 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-02477-1



Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Tuesday, 17 April 2018

Social stress leads to changes in gut bacteria



Exposure to psychological stress in the form of social conflict alters gut bacteria in Syrian hamsters, according to a new study by Georgia State University.

It has long been said that humans have "gut feelings" about things, but how the gut might communicate those "feelings" to the brain was not known. It has been shown that gut microbiota, the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, can send signals to the brain and vice versa.

In addition, recent data have indicated that stress can alter the gut microbiota. The most common stress experienced by humans and other animals is social stress, and this stress can trigger or worsen mental illness in humans. Researchers at Georgia State have examined whether mild social stress alters the gut microbiota in Syrian hamsters, and if so, whether this response is different in animals that "win" compared to those that "lose" in conflict situations.

Hamsters are ideal to study social stress because they rapidly form dominance hierarchies when paired with other animals. In this study, pairs of adult males were placed together and they quickly began to compete, resulting in dominant (winner) and subordinate (loser) animals that maintained this status throughout the experiment. Their gut microbes were sampled before and after the first encounter as well as after nine interactions. Sampling was also done in a control group of hamsters that were never paired and thus had no social stress.

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Monday, 16 April 2018

Heat shock system brings insect 'back to life'


The larva of the sleeping chironomid, Polypedilum vanderplanki -- a mosquito-like insect that inhabits semi-arid areas of Africa -- is well known for being able to come back to life after being nearly completely desiccated, losing up to 97 percent of its body's water content. Now, researchers have discovered that a gene called heat shock factor -- which is present in some form in nearly all living organisms on earth -- has been coopted by the species to survive desiccation.

Heat shock factor -- which exists in a single form in invertebrates but multiple forms in vertebrates -- is an essential part of the ability of living cells to survive stressful conditions such as heat, cold, radiation, and, it turns out, desiccation. In desert insects, the researchers found, the gene is able in certain conditions to upregulate itself, and this upregulation leads to a number of downstream processes, including the synthesis of heat shock proteins that are able to protect proteins in the cell from misfolding.

To perform the research, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers compared data on RNA expression in the sleeping chironomid with a closely related species, Polypedilum nubifer, which is not capable of surviving desiccation. They found that in the sleeping chironomid, hundreds of genes, including genes known to be involved in forming a "molecular shield" against damage due to dehydration, were already expressed during the early stages of desiccation. They discovered that a certain DNA motif, TCTAGAA, which is the binding site for HSF, was strongly enriched around the transcription start site of the genes activated by desiccation in the sleeping chironomid, but not the other species. Intriguingly, they found that in the desiccation-tolerant species, but not the other, genes responsible for the synthesis of trehalose -- a sugar that can stabilize cells in a dry state -- contained the TCTAGAA motif.

To shed further light on the role of trehalose, they treated a cultured cell line from the sleeping chironomid with the sugar, and found that many of the genes activated by desiccation were also activated, and further, that the trehalose treatment led to the activation of the HSF gene. This effect of trehalose was prevented by knocking down the HSF gene, showing the HSF was clearly involved in the response. 

See:

Pavel V. Mazin, Elena Shagimardanova, Olga Kozlova, Alexander Cherkasov, Roman Sutormin, Vita V. Stepanova, Alexey Stupnikov, Maria Logacheva, Aleksey Penin, Yoichiro Sogame, Richard Cornette, Shoko Tokumoto, Yugo Miyata, Takahiro Kikawada, Mikhail S. Gelfand, Oleg Gusev. Cooption of heat shock regulatory system for anhydrobiosis in the sleeping chironomidPolypedilum vanderplanki. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2018; 115 (10): E2477 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719493115

 Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Sunday, 15 April 2018

U.S. E. coli outbreak


The CDC, the FDA, several states, and U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service are investigating a multistate outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 infections.

The investigation started by the New Jersey Department of Health, working together with the CDC and FDA. In New Jersey, ill people included in the outbreak had test results showing the presence of E. coli bacteria. Laboratory testing is ongoing to link their illnesses to the outbreak using DNA fingerprinting.

See: Bio Exoert for further details

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

European Pharmacopeia: Works programme


The European Pharmacopeia intends to assess the following during 2018:
  • 2.6.40. Monocyte-activation test for vaccines containing inherently pyrogenic components
  • 5.26. Implementation of pharmacopoeial methods
  • 5.27. Cross validation
  • N-Boc-O-dimethoxytrityl-O’-nosyl-thymidine precursor for radiopharmaceutical preparations (3091)
  • Erlotinib hydrochloride (3094)
  • Eschscholzia herb (3088)
  • (S)-3-(5-Formyl-4-methoxymethoxy-2-nitrophenyl)-2-(trityl-amino)-propionic acid tert-butyl ester precursor for radiopharmaceutical preparations (3093)
  • Fulvestrant injection (3096)
  • Helichrysi flos (3089)
  • (2S)-O-(2‘-O’-Tosyloxyethyl)-N-trityl-tyrosine tert-butyl ester precursor for radiopharmaceutical preparations (3092)
  • Vibriosis vaccine (inactivated) for sea bass (3090)
  • Vincamine (1800)

Furthermore, the following text is due to be revised:

2.6.27. Microbiological examination of cell-based preparations: “Clarification of the section 3-1-2 dealing with method suitability.”

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Saturday, 14 April 2018

Microbiology Data for Systemic Antibacterial Drugs


A new FDA guidance document of interest has been issued. The title is “Microbiology Data for Systemic Antibacterial Drugs — Development, Analysis, and Presentation Guidance for Industry.”

The introduction runs: “The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors in the development, analysis, and presentation of microbiology data during antibacterial drug development. Specifically, this guidance addresses the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) current thinking regarding the overall microbiology development program needed to support clinical development and approval of antibacterial drugs administered systemically as well as microbiology information collected after approval.”

To view the document, see: FDA

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Friday, 13 April 2018

Work plan for the GMP/GDP Inspectors Working Group for 2018

The European Medicines Agency has published its work plan for 2018:

“The activities outlined in the work plan for 2018 have been agreed in view of preparation for the Agency’s relocation as a result of the UK’s exit from the EU and its impact on the Agency’s business continuity, and may be subject to further review and reprioritisation in accordance with the business continuity plan of the Agency.”

Included in the plan is:
  • GMP Guide: Annex 21 (Importation of medicinal products) - Target date Q4 2018: “To provide the European Commission with a final text for publication.” 
  • Guideline on the sterilisation of the medicinal product, active substance, excipient and primary container, EMA/CHMP/CVMP/QWP/BWP/850374/2015 (H/V). Target date Final guideline to be published Q2 2018: “Public consultation of the draft guideline ended 13 October 2016”.
  • GMP Guide: Chapter 1 (Pharmaceutical Quality System). Target date Q4 2018: “To draft a proposal to amend the chapter in order to encourage industry adoption of risk-based approaches to prevention of shortages, taking account initiatives such as HMA-EMA Taskforce and the industry inter-association guidelines.
  • GMP Guide: Chapter 4 (Documentation). Target date Q4 2018: “To draft a proposal to amend the chapter in order to assure data integrity in the context of GMP. This would be in parallel with similar consideration of Annex 11 (Computerised Systems).”
  • GMP Guide: Annex 11 (Computerised Systems). Target date Q4 2018: “To draft a proposal to amend the chapter in order to assure data integrity in the context of GMP. This would be in parallel with similar consideration of Chapter 4.”
  • Guideline on quality of water for pharmaceutical use (H+V) Target date Draft guideline to be released for 6 month public consultation Q3 2018.
  • ICH Q12 (Lifecycle Management). Step 2b initiated in November 2017 - developing the guideline with particular emphasis on GMP inspection and Pharmaceutical Quality System aspects.



Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle

Thursday, 12 April 2018

Drug-producing bacteria possible with synthetic biology


Bacteria could be programmed to efficiently produce drugs, thanks to breakthrough research into synthetic biology using engineering principles, from the University of Warwick and the University of Surrey.

Led by the Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology Centre at Warwick’s School of Engineering and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Surrey, new research has discovered how to dynamically manage the allocation of essential resources inside engineered cells - advancing the potential of synthetically programming cells to combat disease and produce new drugs.

The researchers have developed a way to efficiently control the distribution of ribosomes – microscopic ‘factories’ inside cells that build proteins that keep the cell alive and functional – to both the synthetic circuit and the host cell.

Synthetic circuitry can be added to cells to enhance them and make them perform bespoke functions – providing vast new possibilities for the future of healthcare and pharmaceuticals, including the potential for cells specially programmed to produce novel antibiotics and other useful compounds.

A cell only has a finite amount of ribosomes, and the synthetic circuit and host cell in which the circuitry is inserted both compete for this limited pool of resources. It is essential that there are enough ribosomes for both, so they can survive, multiply and thrive. Without enough ribosomes, either the circuit will fail, or the cell will die – or both.

Using the engineering principal of a feedback control loop, commonly used in aircraft flight control systems, the researchers have developed and demonstrated a unique system through which ribosomes can be distributed dynamically - therefore, when the synthetic circuit requires more ribosomes to function properly, more will be allocated to it, and less allocated to the host cell, and vice versa.

Declan Bates, Professor of Bioengineering at the University of Warwick’s School of Engineering and Co-Director, Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology Centre (WISB) commented:

“Synthetic Biology is about making cells easier to engineer so that we can address many of the most important challenges facing us today - from manufacturing new drugs and therapies to finding new biofuels and materials. It’s been hugely exciting in this project to see an engineering idea, developed on a computer, being built in a lab and working inside a living cell.”

Ribosomes live inside cells, and construct proteins when required for a cellular function. When a cell needs protein, the nucleus creates mRNA, which is sent to the ribosomes – which then synthesise the essential proteins by bonding the correct amino acids together in a chain.

Based on an original idea arising from discussions between Alexander Darlington, a PhD candidate at the University of Warwick, and Dr. Jiménez, the theory of dynamically allocating resources in cells was tested and analysed with mathematical modelling at Warwick, and then built and demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Surrey.

Notes to editors:

The research, ‘Dynamic allocation of orthogonal ribosomes facilitates uncoupling of co-expressed genes’, is published Open Access in Nature Communications.

doi:10.1038/s41467-018-02898-6

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