Wednesday, 20 March 2019

SkinBioTherapeutics on track for development of scientifically based skin microbiome treatments

UK based SkinBioTherapeutics is developing a range of scientifically validated treatments derived from probiotic bacteria for use in cosmetics, infection control products and for the treatment of eczema.

Led by Professor Cath O’Neill from Manchester University, a world leader in this field, the company will have the results of a double blinded, cream efficacy study in 120 volunteers in a few weeks which will be shared with interested commercial partners. This follows successful clinical studies in ensuring that the treatments do not irritate and that that they are effective moisturisers.

The skin, the body’s largest organ, is colonised by a diverse range of microorganisms which has to be managed for long term good health. SkinBioTherapeutics, patented technology, has developed a range of products based on lysates - extracts of probiotic bacteria - which will help keep the skin healthier and treat certain conditions.

The lysates work by increasing the skins barrier integrity through enhancing the formation of multi-protein complexes called 'tight junctions'. Tight junctions seal the space between adjacent cells to prevent the passage of toxins, molecules and ions through these spaces. They also help to protect the skin from infection by outcompeting harmful pathogens and increase the rate of skin healing in response to injury.

CEO Professor Cath O’Neill commented “My colleague Professor Andrew McBain and myself have been working on understanding the skin microbiome for some years. We believe that there are many treatments which could develop from our research and it has been very rewarding to have such interest from both leading commercial concerns and academia. What we believe is very important is that microbiome treatments are based on science and rigorous human studies.”

The company has also made significant progress both in the scale up of its manufacturing processes and the development of a medical device dossier for the eczema programme for submission to the regulatory authorities.

A fuller account of SkinBioTherapeutics activities is available at

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Tuesday, 19 March 2019

Gamma irradiation cleans up

Disposable medical devices, including syringes, implants, cannulas (flexible tubes) and intravenous sets, are required to be sterile. Given that plastics cannot be subjected to sterilisation by heat, for plastic medical devices, the primary way in which they are sterilised is by gamma irradiation (electromagnetic irradiation).

Article by Tim Sandle.

There are alternative sterilisation processes for medical devices, including electron beam irradiation, ion beams and ethylene oxide gas, but the advantage of using gamma irradiation
is that it has a high penetration capability. This means that products that are relatively dense or moderately sealed can be sterilised in a fairly straightforward way. However, although gamma irradiation is an established process, various factors need to be weighed up.

"Gamma irradiation sterilises materials through the energy from photons of gamma radiation."

These include microorganisms that are typically on the device during manufacture (this natural load can be reduced substantially when devices are assembled in cleanrooms), the type of polymer used to manufacture the device, and the selection of appropriate process controls.

Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation. Gamma irradiation sterilises materials through the energy from photons of gamma radiation (provided by a radioisotope) being transferred to the electrons in the target material. This creates highly active electrons (a process called ionisation) and highly active free radicals. These physical elements are capable of breaking the DNA within microorganisms and spores, which destroys them as well as prevents them from replicating, thus causing sterilisation.


The source of gamma irradiation used at most facilities is a radioisotope called Cobalt-60, which is specially manufactured for use by irradiation plants. Cobalt-60, which performs as an energy source, is normally derived as pellets and placed into stainless steel tubes known as pencils. The pencils are, in turn, housed in a reinforced concrete structure called a cell (usually two metres thick) because shielding from gamma rays requires large amounts of mass.

The Cobalt-60 pencils within the cell are held in a source rack, which has two operating positions. These are the storage position where the rack is either immersed in water or sometimes deep within concrete, and the operational position whereby the rack is raised. It is when in the operational position that sterilisation takes place. The storage position is needed because Cobalt-60 cannot be turned off; it continues to emit radiation.

"The source of gamma irradiation used at most facilities is a radioisotope called Cobalt-60."

Sterilisation by gamma radiation is a cold process and does not require any special physical changes like heat or pressure in order to activate the sterilisation process. The process involves the product being placed into special containers called totes, usually constructed from aluminium. The amount of product that can go into a tote is established during validation. On this basis, it is important to check the dimensions and weight of the product to be sterilised prior to beginning the process.

For the sterilisation process, the Cobalt-60 source is raised and the tote containing products is moved around the source. The movement is at various heights and involves the rotation of the tote so that different sides of it are exposed. This ensures that adequate penetration by the radiation occurs and that the required dose of the product is achieved. The speed at which this takes place depends upon the dose required. The dose is established during the validation. Because Cobalt-60 has a relatively short half-life (less than five-and-a-half years) the rate of decay varies and the process speed needs to be checked each day to ensure that the product in each cycle receives the correct dose.
Proving sterilisation

Sterilisation is demonstrated using devices called dosimeters, which measure the theoretical radiation dose received by the product. Dosimeters are plastic devices which contain a complex dye. After exposure to gamma irradiation the dye inside the dosimeters alters and the greater the level of irradiation, the darker the dye becomes.

"Sterilisation is demonstrated using devices called dosimeters, which measure the theoretical radiation dose received by the product."

Dosimeters are placed in the tote and on the packaging of the product. At the end of the sterilisation cycle, the dose is checked by testing the dosimeters. This is undertaken by measuring their optical density using a spectrophotometer and the material thickness with a microscope. The relationship between these two variables allows the dose calculation to be made.

To provide a visual confirmation of sterilisation, it is common to use chemical indicator labels on the outer packaging of the medical devices. When sterilisation is complete, the indicator labels change colour (often from yellow to red). While such labels provide a rapid way of assessing effective sterilisation they are not a substitute for using and testing dosimeters.
The importance of validation

Before any sterilisation process can be carried out on a medical device it requires validating. This is in order to establish process parameters that can be replicated for routine sterilisation and to show that the sterilisation cycles can achieve a sterility assurance level of 1×10-6. This is a theoretical concept where it is assumed that, in terms of probability, no more than one item sterilised out of one million would contain one or more microorganisms after the completion of the sterilisation process.

Validation involves determining the dose required to be absorbed by the product in order to sterilise it. This is called the dose profile and it is assessed by dose mapping. For medical devices the validation is typically performed in triplicate. The unit of absorbed dose is the Gray (Gy), typically measured as kiloGrays (kGy).

"Because most medical devices are constructed from plastic, there are inherent degradation risks in any sterilisation process."

The Gy is defined as the absorption of one joule of ionising radiation by 1kg of matter. The dose required by medical devices varies and a careful balance needs to be struck between having a sufficient dose in order to ensure sterilisation happens but not too great a dose that the material is damaged (such as becoming brittle or discoloured) or that a chemical reaction takes place which cause a chemical substance to leach out of the material.

Because most medical devices are constructed from plastic, there are inherent degradation risks in any sterilisation process. Degradation is the change in properties of a polymer, such as tensile strength, colour, shape or molecular weight. For critical items long-term stability studies are often undertaken to study the material over its shelf-life and across the typical storage temperatures. This involves physicochemical testing. A common radiation dose used for plastics is in the range 15-25kGy, although it can be higher for denser materials.

The dose profile is based on assessing the absorbed dose. This is based on the density of the medical device, the pack size, the amount of wrapping around the product, the dose rate and the exposure time. This will vary between sterilisation plants because each plant design will be different. This means that validation is not transferrable between plants and must be repeated if a different sterilisation plant is selected.

High standards

It is important that sterilisation facilities operate to standards. The most common standard adopted for gamma irradiation is ISO 11137-1:2006, developed in association with the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation.

"The most common standard adopted for gamma irradiation is ISO 11137-1:2006."

Standards are important so that the manufacturers of medical devices know that the process is being undertaken to a recognisable guideline and that there is a level of consistency between different sterilisation plants. The adoption of a standard also provides the medical device manufacturer with a template with which to construct an audit of the sterilisation plant.

Gamma irradiation has distinct advantages and is one of the most effective sterilisation methods available if the validation is sufficiently robust. If it is not, however, then the sterilisation either simply will not work or the medical device itself will be at risk from material degradation.

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Monday, 18 March 2019

Kenneth G. Chapman Award

Tim Sandle, Ph.D., Head of Microbiology and Sterility Assurance, Bio Products Laboratory Limited, has been awarded the prestigious Kenneth G. Chapman Award by the Institute of Validation Technology.

Ken Chapman served with Pfizer Inc for 43 years in various Production, R&D, and QC roles, retiring as Director of Corporate Quality Assurance Audit in 1994. He served on the Editorial Review Board of Pharmaceutical Technology and, in October 1988, was presented the Pharm. Tech. Publisher's Award at E. Rutherford, NJ. He also served on the Editorial Advisory Board of the Journal of Validation Technology and was honored with the Life Time Achievement Award by the Institute of Validation Technology (IVT).

See IVT -

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Sunday, 17 March 2019

New bacteria discovered in human blood

Two new species of bacteria have been found in the blood of patients in China.

News from the Microbiology Society:

The bacteria were found in the blood of two human patients during blood tests as part of routine medical care. The new bacteria, both of which are in the Enterobacter genus, were found to be resistant to multiple antibiotics.

Enterobacter are not usually harmful and exist as part of the healthy gut microflora. However, when these bacteria enter the bloodstream, respiratory system or the urinary tract they can cause disease. Enterobacter infection in the blood can lead to diseases including meningitis and bacteraemia, and Enterobacter in the lungs can lead to pneumonia. Bacteraemia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream and can lead to serious conditions including sepsis and septic shock.

The researchers named the newly discovered species Enterobacter huaxiensis and Enterobacter chuandaensis.

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Saturday, 16 March 2019

Water microbiota fact sheets

Pharmig has launched the latest in the on-going series of microorganism fact sheets. The factsheets provide descriptive information and characteristics of the main organisms, to help microbiologists tasked with investigations, together with full colour colony and growth characteristics, and typical Gram-stain profiles, to assist those who carry out identifications.

The latest series looks at the types of microbes associated with pharmaceutical grade water, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The fact-sheets are written by Dr. Tim Sandle.

These laminated sheets are ideal for use on the laboratory bench, to assist microbiologists as they carry out their work, and as handy training aids.

To find out more, see the Pharmig publications page here:

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Friday, 15 March 2019

Genes that Help Harmful Bacteria Thwart Treatment

A Rutgers-led team has discovered two genes that make some strains of harmful Staphyloccocus bacteria resistant to treatment by copper, a potent and frequently used antibacterial agent.

The discovery shows that Staphyloccocus aureus can acquire additional genes that promote infections and antibacterial resistance and may open new paths for the development of antibacterial drugs,
according to a study in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.

Researchers at Rutgers University–New Brunswick found the two genes in some strains of S. aureus bacteria. The genes protect the germs from copper, which is increasingly used in the global fight against severe infections.

The Staphylococcus aureus bacterium – a leading cause of serious and life-threatening infections in the United States – is highly resistant to antibiotics. Some strains of S. aureus have newly acquired genes embedded in their genome in pieces of DNA called transposons. DNA can be transferred from one organism to another, and transposons help the acquired DNA rapidly become a permanent part of the recipient’s chromosome.

Transposons aid in the spread of genes that can give rise to bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and more likely to cause disease. The newly discovered genes are encoded within a transposon.

This process likely contributed to the recent North American epidemic of staph infections, according
to Jeffrey M. Boyd, study senior author and associate professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology in Rutgers’ School of Environmental and Biological Sciences.

Here’s the full story with an image:

Here’s a link to the study:

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Thursday, 14 March 2019

Clean facilities round-table

Tim Sandle was a participant in the American Pharmaceutical Review Clean Facilities Roundtable, December 2918, with Tony Cundell, Claire Briglia, Paula Peacos, David Jones, Tim Sandle, Poonam Bhende, and Donald Singer.

Here is an excerpt, from Tim Sandle: “Rapid methods will become more important, in order to address the problem with conventional microbiology of reacting several days later to an event. One more recent development with environmental monitoring methodologies is with optical instruments which aim for the real-time counting of microorganisms and non-viable particles from samples of air. Optical spectroscopy is an analytical tool that measures the interactions between light and the material being studied. These instruments work by elastic light scattering.”

For the full feature, see:

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Wednesday, 13 March 2019

Review of Standards for Disinfectants; and associated guidance

The Australian TGA have initiated a review into hard surface disinfectants. The TGA
invites comments on their proposed update. It is intended that the updated TGO will incorporate all relevant regulatory requirements, comprising:

Updated sections of TGO 54 that clarify existing requirements,
The labelling requirements of the former TGO 37(which has now sunset), and,
Standards and requirements contained within the guidelines for the evaluation of disinfectants.


Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Tuesday, 12 March 2019

Pharmig News #74

A new edition of Pharmig News has been published. In the latest issue:
  • The hidden problems with relaundering microfibre mops by Karen Rossington
  • Endotoxin hot topics and issues by Ruth NoĆ© and Julie Roberts
  • Validation of contact plates for environmental monitoring by Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany
  • Pharmig Membership Survey by Tim Sandle
  • Latest regulatory news
  • And more!
Copies have been sent out. If you would like to see a copy, please email:

Key reference:

Sandle, T. (2019) Pharmig membership survey, Pharmig News, Issue 74, pp9-12

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Monday, 11 March 2019

Out-of-Specification Laboratory Investigations: New Look at an Old Issue

Since 2006, regulatory agencies have produced guidance on conducting OOS investigations. In addition, many laboratories have established internal procedures so that OOS investigations are consistently undertaken. Indeed, the investigation of an OOS should be covered by a Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) and formally documented. The SOP should contain decision tress to ensure that, where possible, the conclusions reached are consistent.

Despite the guidance that is in place, many regulatory cite poor OOS investigations and these features high up on lists of inspectorate findings. Failure to conduct detailed OOS investigations or not producing OOS investigations of sufficient quality regularly features among the top five inspection findings from European Union regulatory agencies and also from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Tim Sandle has taken a fresh look at laboratory OOS investigations in a new article:

This paper takes a look at how OOS are conducted and presents different ways through which OOS investigations can be improved. While the OOS concept discussed is generally more applicable to analytical data than microbiological data, there are aspects in this paper that will be of interest to all laboratory disciplines working in a regulated GMP environment. The paper provides some best practice tips and short case study.

The reference is:

Sandle, T. (2018) Out-of-Specification Laboratory Investigations: New Look at an Old Issue, Journal of GXP Compliance, 22 (6): 1-10

See IVT -

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Sunday, 10 March 2019

Can bacterial expand the genetic code?

The genetic code that creates all life on Earth consists of four nucleotide bases: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine. In the double-stranded helix of DNA, these bases pair up with each other in a certain way. In recent years, researchers have been able to expand the genetic code with new, synthetic bases.

These novel bases have long chemical names, but they’ve been abbreviated X and Y. They are called xeno nucleic acids or XNAs. It took many years for researchers to figure out how to pair them properly within a genome. Now they’ve been able to do it, opening up many possibilities for creating synthetic organisms. Learn more about the potential uses of such organisms from the video.

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Saturday, 9 March 2019

DNA search engine for microbes

Researchers at EMBL's European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) have combined their knowledge of bacterial genetics and web search algorithms to build a DNA search engine for microbial data. The search engine, described in a paper published in Nature Biotechnology, could enable researchers and public health agencies to use genome sequencing data to monitor the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. By making this vast amount of data discoverable, the search engine could also allow researchers to learn more about bacteria and viruses.

The search engine, called Bitsliced Genomic Signature Index (BIGSI), fulfils a similar purpose to internet search engines, such as Google. The amount of sequenced microbial DNA is doubling every two years. Until now, there was no practical way to search this data.
This type of search could prove extremely useful for understanding disease. Take, for example, an outbreak of food poisoning, where the cause is a Salmonella strain containing a drug-resistance plasmid (a 'hitchhiking' DNA element that can spread drug resistance across different bacterial species). For the first time, BIGSI allows researchers to easily spot if and when the plasmid has been seen before.

Google and other search engines use natural language processing to search through billions of websites. They are able to take advantage of the fact that human language is relatively unchanging. By contrast, microbial DNA shows the imprint of billions of years of evolution, so each new microbial genome can contain new 'language' that has never been seen before. The key to making BIGSI work was finding a way to build a search index that could cope with the diversity of microbial DNA.


Phelim Bradley, Henk C. den Bakker, Eduardo P. C. Rocha, Gil McVean, Zamin Iqbal. Ultrafast search of all deposited bacterial and viral genomic data. Nature Biotechnology, 2019; 37 (2): 152 DOI: 10.1038/s41587-018-0010-1

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Friday, 8 March 2019

More than 100 new gut bacteria discovered in human microbiome

Scientists working on the gut microbiome have discovered and isolated more than 100 completely new species of bacteria from healthy people's intestines. The study from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Australia, and EMBL's European Bioinformatics Institute, has created the most comprehensive collection of human intestinal bacteria to date. This will help researchers worldwide to investigate how our microbiome keeps us healthy, and its role in disease.

The new resource will allow scientists to detect which bacteria are present in the human gut, more accurately and faster than ever before. This will also provide the foundation to develop new ways of treating diseases such as gastrointestinal disorders, infections and immune conditions.

About 2 per cent of a person's body weight is due to bacteria and the intestinal microbiome is a major bacterial site and an essential contributor to human health. Imbalances in our gut microbiome can contribute to diseases and complex conditions such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome allergies and obesity. However, as many species of gut bacteria are extremely difficult to grow in the laboratory, there is a huge gap in our knowledge of them.

In this study, researchers studied faecal samples from 20 people from the UK and Canada, and successfully grew and DNA sequenced 737 individual bacterial strains from these. Analysis of these isolates revealed 273 separate bacterial species, including 173 that had never previously been sequenced. Of these, 105 species had never even been isolated before.


Samuel C. Forster, Nitin Kumar, Blessing O. Anonye, Alexandre Almeida, Elisa Viciani, Mark D. Stares, Matthew Dunn, Tapoka T. Mkandawire, Ana Zhu, Yan Shao, Lindsay J. Pike, Thomas Louie, Hilary P. Browne, Alex L. Mitchell, B. Anne Neville, Robert D. Finn, Trevor D. Lawley. A human gut bacterial genome and culture collection for improved metagenomic analyses. Nature Biotechnology, 2019; 37 (2): 186 DOI: 10.1038/s41587-018-0009-7

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Thursday, 7 March 2019

Insight into protein formation could aid understanding of diseases

Scientists have shed light on a biological process that helps the production of healthy cells, which may aid understanding of neurological diseases and other conditions. Researchers examined a housekeeping mechanism which removes faulty proteins as they form. This process, which is common to many living things, removes damaged proteins, preventing their accumulation in cells, tissues and organs.

An improved understanding of how flaws can occur in protein production could help explain other diseases, including some forms of anemia and growth retardation.

Scientists from the University of Edinburgh used the simple model organism yeast to look at how proteins are produced. During this process, genetic information encoded in the DNA is first copied into a related molecule called RNA and then used to produce proteins.

The team concentrated on a part of this mechanism that removes proteins that become stalled part way through their formation. This clears the way for further proteins to be produced.

Scientists studied a yeast protein known as Hel2, using UV light to identify where this protein touches molecules involved in protein production. These interactions help Hel2 identify flaws in protein formation.

When researchers removed the parts of Hel2 in direct contact, this prevented the destruction of faulty proteins, showing that these contacts are important for the mechanism.

See: Marie-Luise Winz, Lauri Peil, Tomasz W. Turowski, Juri Rappsilber, David Tollervey. Molecular interactions between Hel2 and RNA supporting ribosome-associated quality control. Nature Communications, 2019; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-08382-z

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Wednesday, 6 March 2019

New 2019-20 Product Catalogue available now!

It’s here! We are excited to announce the release of our 2019-20 Product Catalogue. Our focus continues to be on improving customer experience and accessibility to our growing portfolio of cleanroom consumables and disposable inline disc filters. Our 52 page edition incorporates updated high quality visuals, content and navigation tools to support your purchasing needs.

Colour-coded sections (i.e. for Cleaning and Disinfection products, think pink) combined with a handy new product code guide enables clients to precisely access specific products they’d like to order.

What’s new this year?
§  New introductory section explaining more about our company, our values and why we should be your first choice in cleanroom consumables and inline disc filters.
§  Improved access and usability with a new product code guide for quicker navigation, valuable links to downloadable instructions and “how-to” guides. Plus a complimentary free sample order request form, making it easier for you to “try before you buy”!
§  We’ve refreshed our new edition with updated professional imagery and content, including the latest testimonials from our valued clients. 
§  This year we want to highlight our exclusive Helapet brands:

SteriClean® | SteriVal® | PharmaPack® | Berner | Vari-Disk®
We continue to develop our unique brands, offering our clients innovative, top quality products at competitive prices.

With a new product catalogue comes brand new Helapet products, so what do we have for you to kick-off 2019?

NEW Sterile Single Use Goggles
Provides effective eye protection and comfort in controlled environments. 100% latex-free for assured use by allergy suffers.

NEW Cyto Sterile Sharps Bin 7L, Triple bagged
Helps facilitate the safe and efficient disposal of sharps in isolators and cleanrooms. Now triple polybagged and terminally sterilised, saving time and expense during aseptic transfer.

NEW Berner ChemoSorb Pad
Safely absorbs and contains up to 3L of hazardous chemicals including cytotoxics, converting the liquid into a gel substance allowing for safe and easy disposal.

Remember to visit our website ( for further useful information and new product introductions throughout the year.

Request your physical copy today by emailing or download for free from our website.

Cannabidiol Helps Neurological Disorders and Weight Management

What is Cannabidiol?

Cannabidiol, also referred to as CBD, is a cannabis compound that shown to have positive medical effects, however without the “high feeling” which is commonly associated with THC or tetrahydrocannabinol.  Since CBD is free of this reaction, it is considered safer for users to purchase it for nutritional and health benefits.

CBD for Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson's disease (known as PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects dopamine-producing neurons in the brain.  CBD has not proven to prevent Parkinson’s disease, however, there have been patients with this disorder implementing CBD in their daily use more lately which have shown positive effects.

Clinical trials discovered that CBD for PD patients provides symptom relief. Patients have noticed improvements in motor functions, and less pain. CBD is also an anxiolytic that can improves sleep patterns and reduce psychosis in PD patients.

CBD for ADHD and Alzheimer’s Disease

Research shows that prescription medications are more intense and even create a psycho-addictive dependency on prescription medicines on patients.  Receptors within the body accept the cannabidiol in its organic form providing stability that allows ADHD patients to benefit medically without negative side effects.  Cannabidiol gel capsules are a common method to ingest cannabidiol to treat these disorders.

Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease associated with progressive neuronal loss and cognitive failure that affects elderly people.  Endocannabinoids are produced like a feedback mechanism of intracellular calcium excess to reduce excitotoxicity.  CBD reduce glutamate release thus inhibiting neuronal excitotoxicity. Cannabidiol can directly raise neurotrophic factors derived by brain & reduce excitotoxicity in the Alzheimer’s disease brain.

Cannabidiol Fights CTE and Weight Management

Head traumas such as concussions lead to a degenerative disease of the brain called CTE (Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy).  This directly effects contact sports.  Prescripts medications have led to a huge dependency issue for patients.  The opioid pandemic has proven to be a legitimate crisis across the board.  CBD has shown to be a better substitute to combat this issue.   In fact, a large percentage of deceased National Football league former players who donated their organs for research showed signs of CTE.  Studies show the use of helmets cannot solely prevent concussions. The loss of consciousness does not always follow concussions. 

CBD oil has become increasingly popular among athletes, former services men fight PTSD, and many others looking for a natural alternative to powerful synthetic medications.  CBD disrupts a specific neurotransmitter reaction after a concussion which poses a neuroprotective effect.  

With many of these neurological disorders from CTE to Alzheimer’s, fighting weight loss becomes part of the added physical problems.  Implementing organic vitamins like CBD along with others like black maca, creatine, weight gain syrup can help maintain a healthy weight balance giving the body strength to continue to recover from the physical impact on the body. 

CBD added as part of your daily nutritional routine can significantly enhance overall health and wellness.  Although many traditional physicians may not want patients to take cannabidiol as they do not directly benefit financially, always still consult a physician to see if CBD is right for you. Due to the natural wonders of CBD, it is indeed the natural choice for anyone in search of a safe alternative to prescription medicine and can help significantly improve neurological disorders.

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

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