Sunday, 9 June 2019

Microbiome Science Roundup


Effects of a diet based on inulin-rich vegetables on gut health and nutritional behavior in healthy humans: A group led by Nathalie Delzenne took on the difficult task of studying a prebiotic dietary intervention in healthy individuals. Their approach was to measure not only gastrointestinal symptoms, but also food-related thoughts / behaviors. They discovered when healthy people consumed vegetables rich in inulin-type fructans, they reported higher satiety and less desire to eat foods that were sweet or salty—and somewhat surprisingly, these feelings persisted for several weeks after the intervention was complete. The intervention also reduced gut microbiota richness and induced changes in particular microbial taxa.

News from Microbiome Times

Prominence of ileal mucosa-associated microbiota to predict postoperative endoscopic recurrence in Crohn’s disease: When someone with Crohn’s disease undergoes ileal resection, predicting the recurrence of disease is currently difficult. This group looked at the gut microbiota of patients at the time of surgery, and found certain bacterial taxa that appeared to predict disease relapse.

Small intestinal microbial dysbiosis underlies symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders: These researchers found that the composition of the small intestinal microbiota – while difficult to sample – correlates better with IBS symptoms than does a duodenal aspirate culture. And sure enough, a dietary intervention that triggered gut IBS symptoms also had pronounced effects on small intestinal microbes.

Metabolomics reveals elevated urinary excretion of collagen degradation and epithelial cell turnover products in irritable bowel syndrome patients: This small study found a panel of ten metabolites in the urine that seemed to distinguish people with IBS from people without IBS. (A limitation of this study was that the participants had many different co-morbid conditions.)

Leveraging Human Microbiome Features to Diagnose and Stratify Children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: This month’s IBS papers were topped off by a sophisticated multi-omics analysis in IBS from collaborators at Baylor College of Medicine (USA). In a population of children aged 7 to 12, these researchers found gut bacterial taxa, genes / pathways, and metabolites that could combine to identify those with IBS. They even found specific ones that were associated with abdominal pain, the main troubling symptom in children with IBS.

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology

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