Tuesday, 26 October 2021

Bacteria, fungi interact far more often than previously thought


Unique bioinformatics approaches are helping microbudgets to understand extent of fungal bacteriome.


A diverse culture collection of fungal isolates obtained from around the world has been screened by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory for potential bacterial associates.


In a novel, broad assessment of bacterial-fungal interactions, researchers using unique bioinformatics found that fungi host a remarkable diversity of bacteria, making bacterial-fungal interactions far more common and diverse than previously known.




“Until now, examples of bacterial-fungal interactions were pretty limited in number and diversity,” said Aaron Robinson, a biologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory and lead author of a new paper describing the research in Nature Communications Biology journal. “It had been assumed that bacterial-fungal associations might not be that common. But we found a lot of diverse bacteria that appear to associate with fungi, and we detected those associations at a frequent rate.”


The research contributes to an emerging understanding of the fungal bacteriome, the existence of bacteria both within and in close association with a fungal host, opening up possibilities for studying the interactions more intimately and connecting that research to issues such as ecosystem functioning and climate change impacts.


“This is a starting point to investigate mechanisms of bacterial-fungal interactions at a more intimate level,” said Robinson. “That research will be valuable for understanding what allows bacteria to associate with fungi, and how to best leverage that insight to accomplish goals for the Laboratory, for the Department of Energy, and for society in general. Understanding how these organisms interact with each other and contribute to larger systems is highly valuable in everything from modeling things like climate change to societally beneficial activities such as agricultural or industrial utilization of microbes.”


Researchers screened a total of 294 diverse fungal isolates from four culture collections from Europe, North America, and South America for potential bacterial associates. Collaborations with the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Los Alamos allowed researchers to visually examine several of these associations using fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques.


These fluorescence microscopy examinations complemented the screening and confirmed the widespread and variable presence of bacterial associates among diverse fungal isolates and even within the hyphae (fungal tissue) of a single fungal host.


In addition to screening the culture collections, the research team also screened 408 fungal genome sequencing projects from the MycoCosm portal, a repository of fungal genome projects developed and maintained by the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute.


Bacterial signatures were detected in 79 percent of the examined fungal genome projects. In multiple cases, the authors recovered complete or nearly complete genomes of these bacterial associates. Recovery of these fungal-associating bacterial genomes allowed for comparisons between fungal-associating and free-living bacteria.


Of the 702 total fungal isolates examined by the research team, bacterial associates were found in 88 percent—an unexpected detection rate relative to previous, more limited studies. The results shed light on the complexity and diversity of the fungal bacteriome across the fungal tree of life.


The study’s overview and description of diverse fungal-bacterial associations provides a path forward for understanding the associations in more depth. Continued analysis of the interactions will aid in a more complete understanding of environmental microbiome processes, particularly fungal and bacterial contributions to nutrient cycling, plant health and climate modeling.


Within the context of changing climate conditions, understanding how bacterial-fungal interactions impact plants, animals, and general ecosystem functioning in diverse environments and under diverse conditions, such as drought and warming, will also help predict and potentially manipulate the impacts of these interactions.


Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology Resources (http://www.pharmamicroresources.com/)

Monday, 25 October 2021

7 Reasons Why Kratom is Getting Popular Among Athletes 2021

Image credits- www.pixabay.com

 The last year has been rough for humankind. The pandemic left no country untouched and is still raging across the world. The coronavirus pandemic halted many industries, but many areas saw a rise in revenue. The same holds for the organic product industries. Many specialists account for this trend to change in consumer choices. More and more consumers do not trust chemically-based products anymore. They are tired of them causing severe complications after consumption. The pandemic fastened the trend which was already going on in the present century.

A guest post by Alexandra Doherty

The organic medicinal industry is not new to the world. Since ancient times humans have used several medicinal herbs for different purposes. The present century has seen a steep rise in demand. There are thousands of studies backing the benefits of the same, which get rid of the myths surrounding them.

Kratom comes under the organic product market and has seen an astronomical increase in demand in recent times. The hike in sales accounts for 120% in the last five years. It is due to the versatility and benefits of Kratom. It comes in handy in various industries like edibles, medicines, and even beverages. As time passes, they are also coming in handy in other areas. Kratom is organic and does not cause any long-term side effects on the consumer, which sets it apart from the rest of the options in the market. The common myth links Kratom with marijuana-based products, which is not correct. Kratom is an opioid substance that has different properties than marijuana. It can have multiple use cases in the athlete industry, and we will discuss it in detail below and describe Kratom in detail.

What is Kratom?

Kratom is also known as the mystical food of dragons in Thailand. The origins link it with the Southeastern part of Asia. It comes from the Kratom plant, which requires a tropical climate. The leaves of the plant serve as an extraction source, and the process is easy to execute. Kratom-based products contain mitragynine extract, THC, and other ingredients. The THC or Tetrahydrocannabinol induces a light daze in the consumer. The content of THC in Kratom is more than 0.3%, making it psychoactive and different from Cannabidiol-based products.


Kratom offers several options to the users. It comes in powder, capsules, oil, and many more, and the most popular form among consumers is capsules. It also comes in many strains like the Red Vein Kratom, White Vein Kratom, Maeng Da Kratom, Green Vein Kratom, Yellow Vein Kratom, and many more.


The Woes of Athletes

Athletes live to compete. The line might give the spectators a thrill, but the case is not similar for them. The spirit of competing always pushes one to exceed their boundaries and look for the next challenge. During this process, it is easy to harm themselves. Most complications by athletes come in the form of many injuries, concussions, and mental stress. Several suffer from the typical fear of missing out when they retire.


Kratom can be an intriguing addition to the daily schedule of athletes. It can help them through various injuries and mental obstructions which they face daily.


The Seven Reasons why Kratom is trending within athletes in 2021 are-

       Helps with Knee Injuries

Knee injuries are very prominent among athletes. It can be due to a collision or a fall while diving affecting their pace and stamina in the long term. The treatment can be painful and can cause severe issues. Kratom-based products have mitragynine extract, which interacts with the receptors and decreases the feeling of pain. The reduction in the electrical activity of the brain can stray the athlete away from pain.


       Can Help with Shoulder Injuries

Shoulder Injuries often take place during collisions. For athletes who are in a sport that involves hands movements, shoulder injuries are common. The pain can often be unbearable and mostly makes athletes go into long rehabs. It causes physical and mental strain in the body. Kratom has psychoactive properties inducing a light daze in the consumer, which can relieve pain. The effects are instant and last for a long time.

       Can Help During Concussion Injuries

Concussion injuries can be severe and can often be career-ending for many players. They were often overlooked and ignored in many cases. After a severe collision, one might feel no pain during activity, but they are visible long-term. The concussion injuries can cause severe pain in the head, and it is often abrupt. It can also increase the mistakes in the most simple chores. The Tetrahydrocannabinol extract can help and reduce dizziness in the athlete.


       Decrease Stress

The relentlessness of the sports industry can often lead to a severe degree of stress. The competitive nature might get the best out of the body, but it also causes mental strain. The enzymes in the Kratom-based products can interact with the neural receptors and ease the mind slowly. The effects are long-lasting, and they can give positive results.

       Saviour from Depressive Episodes

Just like any other field, the stakes are always high for athletes. The winners often are on the top of the podium, and the unsuccessful ones do not get the same limelight. It can lead many to go into seclusion and a state of depression. Kratom can be the perfect option to calm down your mind and help you avoid your triggers.


       Can Increase Your Energy Levels

Athletes are accustomed to large energy drains. They balance their diets according to the calories they will burn during the day. Be it running, swimming, football, or any other sport, it requires an extreme amount of energy. Kratom has several extracts which mix with the bloodstream of the consumer. It can increase the energy levels of the consumer.


       Can Lift the Mood

A healthy mind will offer a healthy body. The State of mind is critical for the body to achieve the maximum level. The mitragynine extract in the Kratom capsules decreases the electrical activity of the consumer. The THC content complements the same and uplifts the mood of the consumer.


Kratom is now the next big thing for athletes as it can cater to their problems without causing severe side effects on the consumer.



The present century has seen a vast increase in demand for Kratom products. Specialists account it to the benefits it has on the consumers. The market expects to grow at the same pace for the decades to come.


The ongoing studies prove that Kratom is a safe vet. It makes the athletes trust it more. More and more firms are distributing Kratom products in the United States of America. Experts recommend consulting your doctor before starting with your favorite product. The opium content in Kratom also makes the experts believe that it can cure drug addiction. They can prove to be the perfect medicinal product for athletes.

Pharmaceutical Microbiology Resources (http://www.pharmamicroresources.com/)

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