Technical articles (free)

Pharmaceutical Microbiology contains links to several free technical papers on a variety of different subjects related to microbiology, pharmaceutical processing and quality assurance. The list is updated regularly.

Some of the papers have been written by Tim Sandle, others have been provided by readers of this website. The list is shown below.

If you wish to use a paper or quote from it please cite appropriately or contact me for details. If you wish to reproduce the paper in full, again please contact me.

Industry trends

An interview with Tim Sandle on future directions in pharmaceutical microbiology, carried out by Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing in 2014, can be found here.


A review of novel techniques for addressing antibiotic resistance by Tim Sandle (see here: antibiotics)

Biological Indicators

An introduction to biological indicators and steam sterilization by Tim Sandle (click here: BI)

Blood Service (UK)

Article on the reforms of the UK blood service (click here: Blood Service)


Introduction to cleanrooms and HVAC (heating ventilation and air conditioning) by Tim Sandle (click here: Cleanrooms)

Polymeric flooring and contamination control in cleanrooms by Tim Sandle (click here: A final floor show for bugs)

A paper outlining technological innovations with cleanroom technology by Madhu Raju Saghee and Tim Sandle (click here: Cleanrooms)

A paper giving an overview of advances in cleanroom technology by Tim Sandle (click here:Cleanroom Technology)

A paper discussing the update to the ISO 14698 biocontamination standard in 2013 (click here: ISO standard)

Modern approaches to cleanroom design by Tim Sandle (click here: Controlled Environments)

Innovations in cleanrooms by Tim Sandle (click here: Express Pharma Cleanrooms)

Culture media

An article outlining the main considerations for designing a culture media testing regime for pharmaceutical microbiology (click here: culture media)


Guide to using Excel for microbiological data by Tim Sandle (click here: Confidence Intervals)

Electronic data management systems by Mike Webb (click here: Electronic Microbiological Data)


Disinfectants use the pharmaceutical industry by Tim Sandle (click here: Disinfectants)

Introduction to disinfectants by Tim Sandle (click here: Introduction to Disinfectants)

Introduction to hand sanitization by Tim Sandle (click here: Hand Disinfection)

Effective hand sanitization in hospitals by Tim Sandle (click here: Effective and Efficient Hand Disinfection)

Importance of hand sanitization (alternative article) by Tim Sandle (click here: Hand Sanitization

PeraDox Study report (EPA acute oral toxicity test) by Robert Noonan (click here: EPA disinfectant report)

Steriplex white paper: spore resistance (Anon) (click here: Endospores and Disinfctants)

Selection of disinfectants used in the pharmaceutical industry, an on-line paper written by Tim Sandle (click here: Pharma disinfectants)

Cleaning and disinfection of cleanrooms, a white paper by Tim Sandle (click here: Cleaning cleanrooms).

A review of disinfectant wipes, an article by Tim Sandle (click here: Disinfectant wipes)

Environmental monitoring

Introduction to environmental monitoring by Tim Sandle (click here: Environmental Monitoring in cleanrooms)

Selection of active air-samplers by Tim Sandle (click here: Active Air-Samplers


An ecological map of the fungi of the human body by Tim Sandle (see: From head To Toe)

Gamma radiation

Tim Sandle and Madhu Raju explore how gamma radiation can be used for sterilization in the pharmaceutical industry (click here: Medical Device Developments)

Human Microbiome Project

A review of the implications of the Human Microbiome Project on pharmaceutical microbiology by Cara Wilder, Tim Sandle and Scott Sutton (click here: HMP)

An opinion piece about the human microbiome and medicine (click here: TMM)


A presentation on Good Manufacturing Practice (click here: GMP)

Laboratory management

Training within the microbiology laboratory by Tim Sandle (click here: Microbiology Training)

Laboratory management: how to train the trainer, a presentation by Brian Alexander (click here:Training)

Microbiological documentation non-conformance, a presentation by Tim Sandle (click here:Documentation Errors)

Documentation errors, alternative presentation by Tim Sandle (click here: Documentation Errors II)

A review of the World Health Organization guide to pharmaceutical microbiology laboratories (2011) by Tim Sandle (click here: Pharmaceutical Micro Labs)


Performance characteristics of the automated LAL test (LAL test)

Glucans and the Bacterial Endotoxin Test by Tim Sandle (click here: Glucans and LAL)

LAL test errors by Tim Sandle (click here: American Pharmaceutical Review)


Microbiology and Sterility Assurance, the most comprehensive text book (introductory flyer) (click here: Microbiology and Sterility Assurance text)

The changing role of the pharmaceutical microbiologist (click here: Microbiology Today)

Interview with Tim Sandle about microbiology and education (click here: Micrographica Today)

Medical marijuana

An overview of the application for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (see med-pot)

Pharmaceutical industry

Media simulation trials by Tim Sandle (click here: Broth Trials)

A history of the first 50 years of the UK Bio Products Laboratory by Tim Sandle (click here: BPL 50 years)

Quality Assurance and Regulatory

An examination of the essential elements of Quality Risk Management by Tim Sandle and Madhu Raju Saghee (click here: QRM)

A review of regulations and quality related matters for the period 2009-2011 by Tim Sandle (click here: regulatory)

Rapid methods

An automated system for rapid non-destructive enumeration for growing microbes by Roanna London et al (click here: Rapid Micro Enumeration)

Bacterial identification for Environmental Isolates using MALDI-TOF Technology by Mark Calmann (click here: Microbial Identification)

A Q & A with Tim Sandle about rapid microbiology methods (click here: Rapid Micro Biosystems Sandle)

Return on investment, a  microbiology round table discussion

Poster abstract ‘Assessing airborne contamination using a novel rapid microbiological method’ by Tim Sandle, Clare Leavy and Rachel Rhodes. Published in HelapetNewsletter, Issue 4, 2015, p2.

Sterility Testing
Investigating sterility test failures by Tim Sandle (click here: Sterility Test Failures)

Overview of sterility test methodology (click here: sterility testing test methods)

Many of the articles can also be accessed via the web document site Scridb. Visit Tim Sandle's Scribd documents here: Sandle Scribd

 Posted by: Dr. Tim Sandle
Dr. Tim Sandle's Pharmaceutical Microbiology Blog