Monday 31 October 2022

Disinfectant resistance: The next threat to pharmaceutical contamination control?


Since the early 2000s there has been a number of research papers looking into the subject of disinfectant resistance across different genera of bacteria. While earlier papers were speculative; later reviews were based on laboratory studies. The disinfectants against which bacterial resistance has been characterised include iodophors, quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), peroxides, phenols, chlorine, and glutaraldehyde (to which potential resistance against alcohols has more recently emerged). This ground has shifted further within the past couple of years with empirical data reported that indicates that some bacteria can develop resistance to many types of disinfectants (and, according to some studies, this phenomenon is progressing at a rapid rate).


The pace at which disinfectant resistance is spreading is probably a consequence of the over-use of biocides (as is the case with antibiotics). As this evolutionary pressure continues, this could create new pressures and concern for sectors that rely upon the use of disinfectants for hygiene control: hospitals, biosecurity, food, pharmaceuticals and so on.



Sandle, T. (2021) Disinfectant resistance: The next threat to pharmaceutical contamination control?, European Journal of Parenteral and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 26 (3), DOI:


Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology Resources (

Sunday 30 October 2022

How AI is changing big data and clinical trials

                                                                Image: (c) Tim Sandle

AI is an abbreviation for artificial intelligence. It is transforming big data and clinical trials. AI is the process of programming computers to learn and function independently and is already used in a variety of businesses. AI is being utilized in the clinical development services business to increase the accuracy of clinical trial predictions and to automate data analysis. It assists in the acceleration and improvement of clinical studies. AI is also being used to enhance data gathering and develop prediction models capable of identifying patients likely to react to a specific treatment, ensuring a seamless messaging refresh in the communication channels involved

By Andrew Smith

Artificial intelligence will have a significant influence on healthcare. According to Acumen Research and Consulting, the global market will be worth $8 billion by 2026, with a large overlap of skills in AI and big data optimization to help handle commercial and real-world challenges.


How is AI changing the way data is collected and analyzed in clinical trials?


AI is changing the way clinical trial data is gathered and processed. AI, for example, may be used to automatically select significant data from clinical trials, aiding in the speed and accuracy of real-world evidence services. Furthermore, AI may be used to find patterns and trends in data, which can assist to increase clinical trial prediction accuracy.


What are the benefits of using AI in big data and clinical trials?


There are several advantages of employing AI with Big Data and clinical trials.


For starters, AI can assist shorten the time it takes to examine data - a significant feat because the faster data is evaluated, the faster results are obtained.


Second, AI can assist in identifying patterns in data that humans cannot. It is effective because it may aid researchers in better understanding the data and making better conclusions. Third, artificial intelligence can assist limit the amount of bias that might arise in clinical studies. This is significant since it can aid in ensuring that the trials are fair and accurate.


Finally, AI can help improve the accuracy of predictions made by clinical development services. This is consequential because it can help researchers make better decisions about how to treat patients.


The role of AI in big data


Artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming increasingly crucial in unlocking the value of data in the age of big data. AI may assist businesses in discovering patterns and insights that would be difficult to discover through manual approaches by automatically interpreting and learning from data. This enables organizations to make better decisions more quickly and confidently.


For Big Data analytics multiple AI systems may be deployed. Machine learning, natural language processing, and text analytics are examples of these. In real-world evidence services, each of these technologies gets utilized to extract insights from data in various ways.


Machine Learning is well-suited for big data analytics because it can adapt to changes in the data set automatically.


Natural language processing is a technique that allows computers to comprehend human speech. This may be used to analyze text data and get insights.


Text analytics is the extraction of information from text data. This may be used to analyze text data sentiment, discover patterns, and highlight crucial insights.


The role of AI in clinical trials and preventive healthcare


The function of artificial intelligence (AI) in clinical development services is becoming increasingly essential. AI may assist doctors and researchers in diagnosing illnesses, discovering novel medicines, and increasing the efficiency of clinical trials.


Furthermore, artificial intelligence is already being employed in emergency departments and critical care units to assist physicians in treating some of the most fragile and at-risk patients. Electronic medical records, test findings, vital sign recordings, and prescription diaries include huge amounts of data. AI algorithms can assist doctors and nurses in identifying data patterns that warn them to a fluctuation in patient condition or the possibility of developing a significant consequence.


The impact of AI on big data and clinical trials

The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on big data and clinical trials is significant for real-world evidence data. AI can help improve the accuracy and efficiency of Big Data analysis, which can improve the accuracy of clinical trials. Additionally, AI can help to reduce the time and cost of conducting clinical trials.


The future of AI in big data and clinical trials


The application of artificial intelligence (AI) in Big Data and clinical trials has enormous promise. AI can find patterns and trends that humans cannot notice by analyzing big data sets. It can help to increase clinical development trail' accuracy and efficiency. Furthermore, AI can help to automate the data analysis process, which can shorten the time it takes to finish a clinical study.


 Pharmaceutical Microbiology Resources (

Signs that You Have a Severe Hernia and How to Fix It


Hernias happen when an organ protrudes through an opening in the tissue that is there to hold it in place. An example of this would be the intestines breaking through a weakened abdominal wall.


By Brooke Chaplan


Hernias most commonly occur in the abdomen between the hips and the chest but have been known to affect the groin and upper thigh areas, as well.

Hernia Causes

The condition is caused by strain and muscle weakness. They can develop suddenly, or over a long stretch of time. Obesity, congenital disorders, and a family history of hernias can contribute.

Hernia Symptoms

The most recognizable symptom of a hernia is a bulge in the area affected. This lump will also tend to disappear when you are lying down but will be more prominent when you are bending over, standing, or coughing.


In addition to discomfort and pain near the bulge, some specific types of hernias cause heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing. Sometimes, however, hernias have no symptoms and show up unexpectedly during routine exams.

Hernia Treatment

One effective method of treating a hernia is surgery. However, your doctor will decide if hernia repair is necessary depending on the size and severity of your hernia. For example, if there is an extra hole in your abdominal wall caused by the hernia, a surgeon can sew it closed before there is further damage.


Sometimes, symptom management may be enough, though, such as wearing a truss, a supportive undergarment that holds a hernia in place, or taking medications, over-the-counter or prescription, to relieve the pain and reduce the production of stomach acid.


There are also home remedies to consider that can ease symptoms, such as changing your diet. Increasing fiber relieves constipation, and avoiding heavy foods and meals is easier on your stomach in general. Healthier eating also keeps your weight in a moderate range. And, you should avoid spicy and acid-based foods that can lead to acid reflux.


Another sure way to combat discomfort is to give up smoking.


Exercise also promotes weight loss while strengthening the muscles surrounding the hernia, relieving the pain. Just note that activity that strains the abdomen, like weightlifting, can increase the abdominal pressure, causing a hernia to bulge more.



In conclusion, it is extremely important to recognize hernia symptoms as they appear and make an appointment with your doctor if you suspect you have one. A hernia will not heal by itself, and it can cause life-threatening complications. So, it is best to see your doctor and he or she can advise you of treatment options.


Pharmaceutical Microbiology Resources (

Special offers