Tuesday, 16 August 2022

What's All The Hype About mRNA Vaccinology?


 

The realization of medicines based on mRNA technology is a relatively recent breakthrough, with several products under trial. Moreover, the COVID-19 vaccine success is spurring a further stream of medicines to come. An mRNA-based medicine is a different concept; it does not fall into small molecule-based pharmaceuticals or within conventional biologics (recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies) but rather falls within the emergent field of nucleic acid therapeutics. mRNA medicines function like sets of instructions directed at human cells to make proteins to prevent or fight disease.

 

The application of mRNA technology came to the fore with the launch of the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, designed to combat the SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for COVID-19. Until this point, vaccines were either inactivated viruses designed to trigger the immune system, which is the case with most influenza vaccines, or vaccines comprising individual proteins.

 

 

Sandle, T. (2022) What's All The Hype About mRNA Vaccinology?, Pharmaceutical Online: https://www.pharmaceuticalonline.com/doc/what-s-all-the-hype-about-mrna-vaccinology-0001

 

Also BioProcess Online: https://www.bioprocessonline.com/doc/what-s-all-the-hype-about-mrna-vaccinology-0001

Also Outsourced Pharma: https://www.outsourcedpharma.com/doc/what-s-all-the-hype-about-mrna-vaccinology-0001

 

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology Resources (http://www.pharmamicroresources.com/)

Monday, 15 August 2022

Pernicious Anemia: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

 

Pernicious Anemia: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

 

Pernicious Anemia is a health condition when the blood in the red blood cells is found lower than the standard level. It is one of the prevalent causes of Vitamin B-12 deficiency in the body.

 

The disease develops mainly because of the autoimmune process's inability to produce a substance known as the stomach's intrinsic factor. This particular substance is responsible for absorbing the dietary vitamin B-12 from food in the small intestine.

 

Vitamin B-12 has a vital role in the production of red blood cells and its proper functioning.

 

Pernicious anemia is a rare condition with a 0.1% prevalence in the general population. It increases up to 1.9% for those above the age of 60, a 2012 study published in the Journal of Blood Medicine revealed.

 

This disease can be treated with oral supplements, vitamin B-12 injections or in combination. If left untreated, the pernicious anemia condition can lead to severe health complications over time.

Diagnosis of Pernicious Anemia


 

Your doctor may recommend taking the best online blood test to determine the level of vitamin  B-12 in your blood. If it is low, you may have pernicious anemia, as the vitamin B-12 levels can be affected by the interference of antibodies.

 

To confirm, ELISA kits are most preferred by doctors internationally. It does the quantitative detection of vitamin B12 in the human serum or plasma. The sensitivity of these kits is quite high, and the results are provided in less than 24 hours.

Symptoms of Pernicious Anemia

 

The progression of the condition is slow; therefore, it is easy to become accustomed to the symptoms, which as follows:-

 

        Fatigue

        Pale Skin

        Chest Pain

        Headaches

        Weakness

 

In the more severe or prolonged deficiency of the vitamin B-12 in the body, the patient tends to experience specific neurological symptoms, and these include:-

 

        Dementia

        Depression

        Muscular Weakness

        Unsteady Gut

        Memory Loss

        Peripheral Neuropathy

 

The other uncommon symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency because of pernicious anemia include:-

 

        Heartburn

        Loss of Appetite

        Constipation

        Confusion

What Are The Causes of Pernicious Anemia?

Diet Lacking in Vitamin B-12

 

Vitamin B-12 is required for the production of healthy red blood cells, so have the following foods rich in vitamin B-12:-

 

        Diary Products

        Shellfish

        Diary Products

        Eggs

        Nutritional Supplements

        Meat

Lack of Intrinsic Factor in the Body

 

Our body also needs a certain kind of protein known as intrinsic factor that absorbs vitamin B-12. This protein is produced by the parietal cells present in our stomach.

 

When you take a meal rich in vitamin B-12, the intrinsic factor absorbs vitamin B-12  from the food in the small intestine. In some cases, our body's immune system attacks & destroys the parietal cells. So, as these cells are destroyed, the body cannot make IF absorb the vitamin B-12 from the diet.

Small intestinal conditions

 

Any medical issues in the small intestine can lead to the deficiency of vitamin B-12. These may include HIV, Crohn's disease, and celiac disease.

 

If the ileum portion of the small intestine is surgically removed, then the risk factors of developing vitamin B-12 deficiency becomes high.

 

Some people have too much small intestine bacteria, which causes a deficiency of vitamin B-12.

Treatment of Pernicious Anemia


 

Doctors generally prescribe a proper treatment plan to their patients, and this includes:-

 

        Vitamin B-12 injections are given to boost the levels of this vitamin type in the body. These injections are given overtime for gradual improvement.

        Doctors will monitor the levels of vitamin B-12 in the body throughout therapy.

        Make the necessary adjustments to the dose of vitamin B-12 injections accordingly.

 

Vitamin B-12 can be given daily or once a week until the average level of this vitamin is not restored.

 

During the first couple of weeks of treatment, your doctor may advise you to avoid physical activities.

 

Once the level of vitamin B-12 normalizes, you're required to take one shot every month to maintain it. Your doctor may recommend vitamin B-12 supplements rather than the injections.

Conclusion

People with pernicious anemia require proper lifelong treatment and monitoring. This will help in preventing any irreversible damage to the body organs, causing severe complications.

 

Early diagnosis, proactive treatment, and close monitoring are indispensable in living a healthy life even with pernicious anemia.

 

 

Pharmaceutical Microbiology Resources (http://www.pharmamicroresources.com/)

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