Monday 3 October 2022

Microbial Contamination in Water Systems

The microbiological impurities are the most critical ones in a water system and are thus of special concern. the design, operation and maintenance of pharmaceutical-grade water systems is critical for ensuring suitable in-process control and final product quality. The levels of microorganisms in the in-coming water can be hard to predict, due to the variables of seasonality particularly for countries with temperate climates), temperature, pH, velocity, stresses and heat, plus differences in water system design between one facility and another. In case of contamination of a purification unit or a distribution system, the user must react quickly. The authors have written down their experience and explain details about the typical microbiome of a water system. In addition, advice is given on how to remediate microbial contamination.  




Roeder, F. and Sandle, T. (2022) Microbial Contamination in Water Systems, PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, 76 (4): DOI:

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology Resources (

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