Monday 31 August 2020

Review of the causes of antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial agents particularly antibiotics have been critical in the fight against infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa (1). There usage in clinical medicine for treating infectious diseases has drastically leads to increase in the life expectancy of the human race over the past six decades. This is because the discovery and usage of antibiotics in infectious disease management has helped to reduce the rate of morbidity and mortality caused by infectious disease pathogens in human population. However, in recent years there has been a marked rise in the number and type of antimicrobial resistant organisms (2).

In relation to this subject, Tim Sandle has written an new article.

Here is the abstract:

Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges to the health sector worldwide, and this medical quagmire threatens our ability to effectively manage and treat some infectious diseases. Microbial resistance to antibiotics and/or antimicrobial agents has been documented not only against antibiotics of natural and semi-synthetic origin such as the penicillins, but also against some purely synthetic compounds (such as the fluoroquinolones) or those which do not even enter the cells (such as vancomycin). And unfortunately, the slow pace in the discovery and development of novel antibiotics have not actually kept pace with the emergence and rate at which bacteria develops and mount resistance to some available antibiotics (3).

Some infectious diseases including but not limited to tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, septicaemia, gonorrhoea, wound infections and otitis media are now becoming recalcitrant to treat with some available antibiotics because the causative agents of these diseases are fast becoming resistant to some available antibiotic therapy. These antibiotic resistant organisms have developed several novel ways and mechanisms that allow them to ward-off the antimicrobial onslaught of potent antimicrobial agents and/or antibiotics targeted towards them. This article reviews the primary resistance mechanisms.

The reference is:

Sandle, T.  (2020) Review of the causes of antimicrobial resistance, Microbioz India, 6 (3): 12-20

Access the article for free here:

Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology Resources (

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