Monday 21 June 2021

Evaluating Pyrogen Contamination Risk


Pyrogens are commonly divided into two classes: exogenous pyrogens, such as endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria that induce fever when applied intravenously; and endogenous pyrogens that are induced inside the body as a reaction to the contact with exogenous pyrogens and cause an elevation in body temperature (endogenous pyrogens have potent pyrogenic and inflammatory activities and include interleukin 1-a (IL-1a), interleukin-1b (IL-1b), tumour necrosis factor a (TNF-a) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)).


In this article, non-endotoxin pyrogens from exogenous source and their associated risks are the subject.



For details and to access the complete article, see:


Sandle, T. and Robert, L. (2021) Evaluating Pyrogen Contamination Risk and the Need for the MAT in Pharmaceutical Processing, Rapid Microbiology, 10th May 2021 at:


Posted by Dr. Tim Sandle, Pharmaceutical Microbiology Resources (

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